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How do you draw a black cat?

You use the white box and the black cat’s legs, or rather, one leg of the cat (that is your cat’s belly). How do you draw a black cat. You simply use the black box. And in order to draw the black cat’s body, you simply draw the black box in two columns. What do you do to make sure that the black cat’s mouth, and the black cat’s eyes are both visible above the yellow box, and in the white box at the bottom, as in the pictures below? That’s called “paint-culling”.

What follows is a brief transcript of a recent interview with Professor Peter Turchin (PDF) of the Department of Economics at Columbia University regarding the effects of a carbon tax.

Michael Barone: For those who do not know, are there particular sectors of society that are more dependent on carbon?

Professor Peter Turchin: It is a good question, and I think it is a very difficult question to answer. But I think you can distinguish in a lot of ways between the kinds of impacts that can be mitigated by a carbon tax. As you understand that the first is economic-related, and maybe the second is, for example, policy-oriented, which is the third kind. So we’ve identified six different examples:

[1] The impacts of a tax on energy, by the way – that means that this is not an energy-related tax and that all of the economic- and policy-oriented kind of impacts can be mitigated. The tax might have little effect on energy consumption if it is applied only to households or if it is also applied to industries; it might reduce carbon emissions in the long term if applied only to the industries affected; it might increase carbon emissions in the long term if it is applied to households and it also reduces the rate of that emissions reduction.

[2] The impact on energy supply-substituting for other resources; for example, if it raises the price and there’s a shortage of fossil fuel, then you’ll have higher prices of food and energy and it’ll be very expensive for families to feed themselves.

[3] The potential increase in carbon emissions in the long run if it raises the price of energy, or raises the price of other resources and if there are fewer fossil fuel reserves available to be produced.

[4] The carbon-emitting effect on the environment if there are no significant changes, if prices are high,